Apart from the fact that we know according to the educationist that, learning is the acquisition or skills through study, experience in learning.
It is the process of acquiring new understanding, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values and preference by humans, animals and machines.
The opposite of ability is disability. Any condition that makes it more difficult for a person to do certain activities, this condition may be mental, physical, sensory, development etc.
What is Learning Disability?
The term learning is related to the brain, action to remember some value, knowledge, or action to use what you have learn into action.
Learning disability is a disorder characterized by difficulty with certain skills such as reading or writing in individual with normal intelligence.
It is a condition in the brain that causes difficulties comprehending or processing information and can be caused by several different factors.
This doesn’t exclude the ability to learn in a different manner.
Therefore, some people can be more accurately described as having a learning difference, thus avoiding any misconception of being disabled with a lack of ability to learn and possible negative stereotyping.
Learning disability can be lifelong condition. This limitation can come up in many ways; it can be difficult in spoken and writing language, coordination, self-control, or attention.
TYPE OF LEARNING DISABILITY
A learning disability is not an intellectual disability. A learning disability is a disability that affects a person’s ability to process information. The type of learning disability is discussed below.
This is the most common form of learning disability. It is a language based disability in which a person has trouble understanding in word, sentences, or paragraph.
This is a special learning disability that affects the reading and related language based processing skills.
Dyscalculia is a long life learning disability that affects the ability to solve math concept or any calculated related concept.
Individual with this learning disability may also have poor comprehension of mathematics symbols, may struggle with the memorizing and organizing numbers, even troubles in counting.
This disorder includes difficulty staying focused and paying attention, difficulty controlling behavior and hyperactivity. This is not considered to be a learning disability, as it is common among little children.
Research so that 30-50 percent of children with ADHD also have a specific learning disability as a result of not been focused during learning, also this two condition can interact to make learning.
This learning disability is not common among the learning disability. This is a disorder that affects the development of motor skills.
This disorder is also characteristics by difficult in muscles control, which causes problems with movement and coordination, language and speech, and can often affect learning.
Individual with his disability find it difficult planning and executing fine motor tasks, ranging from waving goodbye to greeting dressed.
This type of disability is also a long life disability with no cure, but with an option to help manage the ability so as to be independence.
Although not a learning disability, dyspraxia often exists along with dyslexia, dyscalculia and ADHD
Dysgraphia is a writing disability where people find it difficult to form letter and write within a defied space.
This specific learning disability affects the handwriting ability and fine motor skills; this causes illegible handwriting, inconsistence spacing, poor spatial planning on paper, poor spelling, and difficulty composing writing as well as thinking and writing at the same time.
Non-Verbal Learning Disability
A disorder which is usually characteristics by a significant discrepancy between higher verbal skills and weaker motor.
An individual with this disability has trouble interpreting nonverbal cues like facial expression or body language, and may have poor coordination.
CAUSES OF LEARNING DISABILITY
Learning disability is a brain operational aberration, caused by something affecting the development of the brains. This means that brain assimilates and processes certain kinds of new information and performs operation in unique normal learning milestones.
This may occur before birth (prenatally), during birth, or in early childhood. Learning disability can be caused by any of a variety of factors, or by a combination. Sometimes the specific cause is unknown.
In many cases, there may be a genetic predisposition to the development of learning disability. They can also be caused by changes in the brain from social or environment deprivations, deafness, poor vision, birth trauma or neurologic injury in utro.
Learning disabilities are twice as common in children with chronic health condition. Children who receive special education services have greater rates of healthcare utilization than children who do not receive special education services.
Some development problems can be corrected or improved by addressing intrinsic causes such as poor vision, deafness, and environmental factors.
Sometimes the specific causes are not known. Possible causes include the following;
- An inherited condition, meaning that certain genes passed from the parent affected the brain development, for example fragile X.
- Chromosome during birth resulting in a lack of oxygen to the brain
- A very premature birth
- Mother’s illness during pregnancy
- The mother drinking during pregnancy, for example Foetal Alcohol syndrome
- A deililtating illness or injury in early childhood affecting brain development, for example a road traffic, accident or child abuse
- Contact with damaging material (like radiation)
- Neglect, and/or a lack of mental stimulation early in life
- Some people with learning disabilities have additional physical disabilities and/or sensory impairments
SYMPTOMS OF LEARNING DISABILITY
The symptoms of learning disabilities are a diverse set of characteristics which affect development and achievement.
The symptoms at times are associated with the causes of the disability.
Some of these symptoms can be found in all children at some time during their development. However, a person with learning disabilities has a cluster of these symptoms which do not disappear as he/she grow older.
Most frequently displayed symptoms
- Short attention span
- Poor memory
- Difficult following direction
- Inability to discriminate between/among letters, numerical, or seconds
- Poor reading and/or writing ability
- Eye-hand coordination problems; poorly coordinated
- Difficulties with sequencing, and/or
- Disorganization and other sensory difficulties
In conclusion, learning disabilities have no cure, but early intervention can lessen their effects. People with learning disabilities can develop ways to cope with their disabilities.
Getting medical help earlier increase the chance of success in school and later in life.